• 周四. 4 月 25th, 2024

中和位教育——东亚儒家文化圈的共同哲学诉求曾繁仁(山东大学文艺美学研究中心,济南250100) 摘要:“中和位教育”是古代东方哲学“中和”的古老表述。理论”,反映了它代表了古代东亚国家的共同哲学和智慧,具有重要的当代价值。 “中立教化”的核心是让世间万物各就其位,从而促进万物的生长和发展。 是对世间万物,包括人类的“改造、教育”之道; “中性定位与教育”落实到具体生活实践中,就是以修心为核心,培养人的“中性”美德;是中国古代文化中弘扬和实施“中性教育”的重要途径。传统是“礼乐教化”。 “礼乐教化”使东方的政治、伦理、文化、教育体系始终贯穿美育,以教育人心,从而促进整体和谐。 “中和位教育”以《易经》中的“生生”哲学和“太极化生”理念为基础,体现了东方哲学对天地自然规律和生命根本奥秘的揭示。生活和社会发展; “中立教育”理念中的“万物和谐”、“和而无异”、“两全其美”等论述,为现代社会的发展处理人与人之间的关系提供了良好的指导。人与社会之间、国家与国家之间、人类社会之间。 发展问题以及与自然环境的冲突提供了具有启发性的东方智慧。 关键词:中和岗位教育; 生生; 修身养性; 礼乐教育; 和谐无差别。 CLC分类号:I01 文献标识码:A 文章编号:1003-3637(2017)03-0044-05 发展哲学是一个类型,还是多个类型? 这是学术界长期存在的争论。

“欧洲中心论者”认为哲学的发展只有一种类型,只有西方有哲学,东方没有哲学。 即使在东方,人们也早已习惯用西方哲学来解读东方的思想文献。 这是中国哲学研究的路径,也可以说是东方哲学研究长期以来所经历的路径。 事实证明,这条道路是错误的、行不通的。 英国历史学家汤因比在《历史研究》中认为,世界文明有多种形式,中华文明是其主要形式之一。 他所指的“中华文明”包括日本文明、朝鲜文明,实际上指的是东亚文明。 众所周知,哲学是文明的精神内涵。 它是一定地理环境、经济社会和文化习俗的表征。 不同的地理环境、经济社会、文化习俗会形成不同的哲学形态。 东方哲学起源于公元前“轴心时代”古代亚洲内陆的农业社会环境。 中国古代祖先对“农”有着深深的渴望。 他们日出而作,日落而息,春天播种,秋天收获,充满了对土地的热爱。 乡愁,盼风调雨顺,五谷丰登。 中国传统社会文化生活是以农业经济为基础的父系社会组织形式,形成了与自然节律相统一的文化生活模式。 在此基础上诞生的儒家文化以“中和”为哲学诉求,蕴含着浓厚的以追求善为主要目的的人文色彩,这与古希腊的“和谐论”哲学不同。 古希腊文明起源于古希腊半岛。 这里依山傍海,属海洋性气候,以航海和商业为主。 由此产生了带有浓厚科学色彩、以物质为中心的“和”哲学。 所谓“比例、对称、和谐”。

东方“中和”哲学与西方“和”哲学在背景、内涵、感受、侧重点等诸多方面存在明显差异。 古代东方哲学“中立论”的古老表述是“中立立场教育”。 这是刻在孔庙门楣匾额上的一句话。 它是体现儒家文化精神、对整个东方文明具有指导性的核心理念。 “中和微语”出自“四书”之一的《礼记·中庸》。 所谓“喜、怒、哀、乐,未生时,谓之中;发生时,皆在中,谓之和。中,天下之本;中,天下之本也。”和谐是天下之道,达到中和,天的地位如何?,万物得以滋养。 东亚各国由于地理接近、语言相近、文化相互影响,形成了共同的儒家文化和汉字文化圈,基本都认同儒家哲学和价值追求。高丽王朝在其著名的《圣学十图》中指出:“圣学在于求仁。 只有深刻领会这个意义,我们才能看到自己与世界、万物合一。 这是真实的。 为仁之事,始于亲密、品味。 既避免了鲁莽,也避免了谈判的麻烦。 又避免了认物为己之病,心性完整。”[1]他所指的“圣学”就是儒家思想。“求仁”、“为仁”、“与宇宙万物融为一体”日本当代宗教哲学家池田大作在谈到东亚地区的共同文化特征时指出:“可以说,这个地区弥漫着一种’共生精神’(共生道德气质)。 与44文学的温和气候相比,这种气候中滋生了一种求和而放弃对立、求合而放弃分裂、追求“大我”而放弃“小我”的心理倾向。 。

人与人之间、人与自然之间,共存、相互支撑、共同繁荣。 这种气质的重要来源之一就是儒家思想”[2]。池田所说的“共生”与“共存”就是“中性教育”的本质。“中性教育”的概念有着非常丰富的内涵,体现了共同的教育理念。一、“天人合一”的生态思想当代人类正在迈向生态文明时代,生态文明的核心是人与自然的和谐相处。共生、可持续发展以“中和教育”为核心理念的东亚文明蕴藏着丰富的古典生态智慧,值得借鉴。 《论语·永业》记载,孔子说:“中庸是德,是至德!”韦和彦评论《论语》说:“中庸是德,是至德!”中庸为恒,中立为恒行之德。 还。 ” [3] 南宋朱熹说:“中者,无过失之名;中者,无过失之名;中者,无过失之名。 平庸的就是普通的。 ” [4] 91孔子以“中”为最高德,指出“过犹不及”。 在朱熹看来,这是因为“道以中庸为德”。 贤人的过失虽然比不贤的过失要好,但仍然是失败者。” “中间是一样的”。 《礼记·中庸》重点阐述了孔子的“中庸之道”。 据《中庸》篇记载,孔子曾称赞舜帝能够“把握两端,以利民”。 因此,一般来说,“中用”被理解为事物两端的平衡。 例如,朱熹说:“两端是指意见之间的极端差异。一切事物都有两端,如小、大、厚等等。在善中,你握住两端,衡量它,得到它,然后使用它,然后你才能选择和实践它。

[4] 20 我们认为,“主义”概念应坚持的“两端”有着非常丰富的内涵。 它们不仅指“公论”的两端、事物的两端、事物的两端,还可以理解为包括人类所在的天地两端。 这样,“道”的“中”就可以理解为“天人合一”的“一”。 《中庸》篇指出:“喜怒哀乐之终”,释放时称为中;释放时,称为中;释放时,称为中;释放时,称为中;释放时,称为中;释放时,称为中。 当它被释放时,它被称为中间部分。 居中者,为天下之根本;居中者,为天下之根本; 和合者,则天下之道。 做到中立,天就有其地位,万物就会得到滋养。 这里的“中和”不仅是修养人性之道,也是人类社会的根本之道。《中庸》认为,人的使命、人的责任,或者说人性的要求,不仅在于修养要达到“中和”的德性,并充分发挥这种德性,这就是“中和”,“天位”、“养育万物”,不仅是“中和”的目的,也是“中和”的目的。 “中和”的内涵。因此,“中和”之道的核心是让天下万物、万事万物各就其位,使万物得以繁盛、生长。换句话说,“中和”就是世界万物和谐,包括人。“化育”之道。《中庸》中的这一概念遵循老子的“道生一,一生二,三生三”(《老子·章》) 42”),同时也受到《周易·易传》“人生无常”的启发。 《易经》太卦《端传》云:“太,从小到大,吉祥昌盛。意思是天地相通,万物相通,上下相通,心心相通。”太卦之卦,上为坤,下为干。 干如天,坤如地。 天很大,地很小。 天在上,地在下。

因此,“小者去大者”,一方面是指天地之气相互作用,滋养万物,另一方面也象征着天地回归其应有的状态。职位。 《易经·易传》认为,“天地和”的状态正是自然界万物繁衍繁衍的状态,而人的责任就在于“裁天地之道,和合之道”。支撑天地和谐”(《易经·太·传》大象”)。这就是《中庸》篇中所说的“颂扬天地的化育”。可见,《周易》中的“天地之道”和《中庸》中的“中和、位置、教育之道”,就是“富”之道。儒家讲“爱生命”,提倡“仁人爱人”、“仁人爱物”;道家讲“养生”,强调“平和秩序”;佛教提倡“养生”。保护生命”,主张“众生平等”,反对“杀戮”。 “中性教育”理念可以说是东方文化“生活”态度的集中体现。 《周易》干卦《彖传》指出:“干道之变,每正命,守太和,益于贞节。” 这里的“太和”就是“中和”的境界,“干道”就是“天地之道”。“大道之变”以“保和和谐”为最终目的,其前提是“各正其命”,“各有命数”,这就是《中庸》所说的“天地何在”。天、地、人、万物。 “利与贞”的境界是人与自然万物整体和谐的理想境界,也是一种境界。人与自然界万物实现自己的“生”,从而不断繁衍、繁衍的理想生命境界。这种状态,用《中庸》的话来说,就是“万物相生,互不相害”。其他,道并行而不冲突。”

“中立与教育”的理念体现为宏观的自然与人的和谐,这与古希腊以来西方文化所强调的比例、对称、黄金分割等物质与形式的和谐有着明显的区别。 “教育”是前现代农业社会对自然与人和谐的永恒追求,是宝贵的经典生态智慧。 从某种意义上说,古代东方哲学可以说是一种古典生态哲学。 “中性教育”理念所体现的“热爱生命”、“培育健康”、“保护生命”的传统生态智慧,对于遏制现代社会人类无止境的欲望、挽救生态危机、促进人与自然的和谐。 共生、可持续发展无疑具有积极的启示意义。 二、“修身、诚”的美德思想“中教”理念作为“天人合一”宏观思想的体现,落实在具体的生活实践中,以心修为核心,培养人的“中和”美德。 儒家把道德修养作为人成为人的基本途径,追求道德修养达到“至诚”的境界。 因此,儒家思想的核心是人的哲学,是使人成为人的知识。 用孔子的话来说,就是“成人”之学。 “成人”始于“修”,修身的“诚”状态就是“天人合一”的状态。 因此,“中性教育”的人生追求体现为一种“道德思维”,不同于古希腊以来西方文化传统的“科学思维”。 《礼记》的“大学”篇和“中庸”篇都是“四书”之一。 如果说《中庸》篇主要阐述了“中和定位教育”之道,那么《大学》篇则主要论述了如何将“中和定位教育”之道落实到生活实践中。

《大学》篇指出:“自帝王以至百姓,皆以修身为本”。 儒家认为,人的使命,人之所以为人,就是修身、齐家、治国、平天下,而“修”是其出发点和基础之一。 《大学》指出:“古之欲清德,必先治国;欲治国,必先齐家;欲齐家,必先齐家。”家人,必先修;欲修身,必先正心。 儒家讲“修身”,虽然注重“正心”,但实际上是一个内外兼修、身心俱进的过程。 正如孔子所说:“温文有礼,君子也”(《论语·用也》)。“温文尔雅”的状态就是身心关系“中和”的状态。认为“修”是使人成为人、实现完美人性的途径,达到这种境界的标志就是“至诚”。《中庸》指出:“天下唯有诚,才能成其道。”自然; 能成其性,则能成人性;能成其性,则能成人性;能成其性,则能成人性。 能成其性,则能成物之性。”自然;能表物之性,则赞天地化育;能赞天地化育。地,你可以参与天地。” 按照“天人合一”的理念,“人性”与“物性”是相通的。 所以,“能成人之性”,就是“能成事物之性”。 结合《易经·系辞》,“一阴一阳谓之道,其之以善,所达则性”。 “穷尽万物之性”后,“与天地合一”,“颂扬天地的化育”。 这也是人性发展的必然要求。 也就是说,“赞天地化育”不仅是人类顺应天意的良道,也是人性的完善。

人的修养如何达到“至诚”的境界,《中庸》提出了“独慎”、“忠恕”、“仁”三个要求。 所谓“谨言慎行”,就是“隐而不见,微妙不显”,这就要求你即使在隐蔽、微妙的方面也能始终保持高尚的人格; “忠恕”就是“不想做的事不要对自己做,也不要对自己做”。 “己所不欲,勿施于人”,这就是《论语·卫灵公》中所说的“己所不欲,勿施于人”,要求不强加于人。别人做你不想做的事; “仁”就是“仁”,“人”要求以仁慈的态度对待他人,成就自己和他人。正如《论语·永业》所说:“仁者,若欲立己,则能立人。”其他的; 对于自我修养,《中庸》提出了一系列具体要求。比如,“五大道”就是正确处理五种主要的社会关系。君臣、父子、夫妻、兄弟、朋友;“三大德”要求身体具备“知”、“仁”、“勇”三大要素。 ”,即“修身”、“尊贤”、“亲亲”、“尊臣”、“敬臣”、“功劳苍生”、“来百工”、“尊尚”。从这里也可以看出,儒家所提倡的“修身”并不是孤立的道德修养,它需要的是血缘的“亲情”。以关系为基本出发点,是“立己”、“立人”、“发性”的结合体。 “创世”,是个体发展与社会进步齐头并进的过程,是人类社会与自然世界的整体和谐。 这就是所谓的“内圣外王”之道。 儒家的“修身”是“中庸”在生活中的贯彻,所以人性的修养始终贯穿着“中庸”的要求。

《中庸》一章引述孔子的话指出:“君子中庸,小人逆中。君子中庸,君子常中;小人不中庸。”与小人相对,小人毫无顾忌。” 可见道家的“中庸”观念,修身养性必须讲究“适时”。 “中时”的基本含义就是时刻处于“中”,始终保持自己身心之间、自己与他人之间、自己与社会之间、乃至天与地之间的“中立位置”。和地球。 在古代东方文化中,“时间”是一个非常重要的概念。 东方古代文化可以说是在宇宙中,在天地人的相互影响中,在变化中,自身的身心、自我与社会、人与自然的和谐发展与共生。时间、节气和季节。 共同进步。 因此,“时中”可以理解为抓住“中立教育”发生的契机,让人们更加积极地“弘扬中立”,“颂扬天地的改造教育”。 通过“修养、诚心”,就能培养出这样抓住“中性教育”机遇的“君子”。 这就是“修”的本质。 三、“礼乐教化”的美育思考 “中立教化”作为一种哲学诉求和理论原则,在中国古代文化传统中通过“礼乐教化”得到弘扬和落实。 《周礼》的政治和社会理想是“以礼乐,和天地之化,和万物之生,事鬼神,和万民,生万物”。 ” 《礼记·乐记》篇指出:“大乐与天地合,大礼与天地合”。 礼乐之道,是天地之道的体现。 在社会政治中推进礼乐教育,首先要通过“文礼乐”(《论语·先文》)培养“温文尔雅”的君子(《论语》)。

更重要的是,用礼乐教育来“中和”,营造整体和谐社会。 《乐传》云:“故宗庙中,君臣同听,众人皆恭敬;族长村中,长幼同听,众人皆恭敬。”会温顺;闺中,父子兄弟齐听,皆会恭敬。” 这样做,双方就会和睦相处。”作为君子修养,“温礼”体现了“质”与“素”的“中”关系,即“仁”与“礼” “和”、“乐”、“礼”。作为一个和谐社会的整体,“和敬”、“和顺”、“和”等也体现了“天道如何、万物如何”的哲学追求。 “礼乐教化”起源于原始宗教文化,直至周公“制礼乐”才成熟。《史记·周公》记载,周公“兴礼乐, ”这说明中国自西周初年起就正式采用礼乐教育作为其基本的政治和教育制度。根据《周礼》的设计, ”,国家设立“大宗伯”职位,负责礼乐教育。 所谓“礼”,是由礼、礼、礼、礼、礼仪等组成的,集宗教、政治、伦理等为一体的综合文化体系。“乐”是古代音乐、舞蹈、音乐等的总称。歌曲和诗歌。 它既是“礼”的组成部分,又相对独立于“礼”。 礼乐教化不仅是国家的基本政治道德制度,也是国家的基本文化教育制度。 礼与乐相辅相成。 礼主中,乐则和。 《乐传》指出:“礼乐,和民声”,“礼乐制度,主民心”,“历代君王之乐,不以民口胃之欲,耳目,反之,是教民好恶,人性之义。

“礼乐共同发挥美育作用,教育人心,促进社会整体和谐。从这个意义上说,中国传统的礼乐教育就是东方古代的美育。但这种美育与西方传统美育有很大不同。西方美育在哲学、体育、音乐的综合教育中更偏向于音乐,而中国的礼乐教育则是融合了“六艺”如“礼、乐、书、数”。;西方美育主要体现为一种文化艺术教育活动,而中国礼乐教育不仅是一种文化艺术活动,而且是一种政治活动和政治制度。虽然“美育”的概念是由德国美学家席勒在1795年的《美育通讯》中首次提出的,但无论在西方还是东方,有意识的美育活动很早就开始了。 中国早在公元前11世纪周公“制礼乐”时就开始了有意识的审美教育。 西方美育贯穿着古希腊“和谐之美”的科学精神,东方礼乐教育则体现了天人合一的“和谐之美”的宏观人文精神; 美育主要是基于科学和哲学的理性追求,而中国的礼乐教育主要是陶冶身心、引导人向善的德育。 西方美育以音乐、戏剧等为手段,贯穿着古希腊“高贵朴素、宁静伟大”的西方古典审美精神,而中国古代的“礼乐教育”主要依靠“六朝大乐”。 《周礼》和《六朝大乐》中均有提及。 以《诗经》为代表的“雅歌之声”,孔子称之为“雅乐”,寄托了儒家的政治、道德、审美理想,体现了“至善”、“温柔”的“中和”审美精神。

“礼乐教化”的理念体现在东方思想文化的各个方面和层面。 它的存在和影响,使东方的政治、伦理、文化、教育体系始终贯穿着以育人心灵、促进整体和谐为目的的美育。 也使得东方传统文化整体呈现出浓厚的艺术情调。 在“礼乐教化”理念的影响下,东方文化传统中的文学艺术被赋予了广义的美育的精神魅力。 这是一个值得发扬光大的优秀传统。 4、“太极变态”的太极思想“中性教育”的观念是在汉代的《礼记·中庸》中提出并确立的。 这并非偶然。 它是先秦以来中国智慧发展的产物。 其中,《易经·易传》的出现为“中和立场教育”提供了重要的理论前提。 《周易》原本是一本占卜的书。 《易经》的出现,阐明并赋予了它以哲学意义,使其成为“群经之首”。 《易传》首次明确提出了“天人合一”的重要思想。 《易经·系辞夏》篇曰:“易经为一书,浩瀚而全。有天道,有人道,有地道。三才二才”。加起来,就是六。” 《易经》是一本书,既是“天道”、“地道”又是“人道”。 天、地、人之道虽然各有其独特的意义,但在精神上却有着根本的联系。 因此,《周易·文言》篇指出:“夫子,其德和天地,其明和日月,其秩序和四时, and his fortune and misfortune are in harmony with the ghosts and gods. Innate and natural, and according to heaven. Time.” This means that “harmony between nature and man” and “harmony between nature and man” are the way for the development of man and human society.

According to the discussion in “Book of Changes·Book of Changes”, the connection and unity of the ways of heaven, earth and man lies in “shengsheng”, that is, “shengsheng is Yi” as mentioned in “Xici 1”, and “shengsheng is Yi” as mentioned in “Xici 2” “The great virtue of heaven and earth is life”. The introduction of the concept of “shengsheng” in “Yi Zhuan” injects the connotation of the “transformation and education” of all things in the world into the Confucian concept of “neutralization”. “Book of Changes·Yi Zhuan” talks about the way of “life and life” and puts forward the concept of “Tai Chi transformation of life”, which more fully embodies the issue of “transformation and education of heaven and earth”. “Xi Ci Shang” points out: “Therefore, there is Tai Chi, which gives rise to two phenomena. Two phenomena give rise to four images, and four images give rise to the Bagua. The Eight Diagrams determine good and bad luck, and good and bad fortune give rise to great causes.” The introduction of the concept of “Tai Chi Transformation” laid the foundation for The Eastern “Tai Chi” thinking mode is different from Western rational thinking. During the Northern Song Dynasty, Neo-Confucian Zhou Dunyi deeply explained the issue of “Tai Chi metamorphosis” in “Tai Chi Illustrations” combined with the concept of “one yin and one yang is called Tao” in “Zhou Yi·Yi Zhuan” and pointed out: “Wu Chi is Tai Chi. Tai Chi moves. Yang is born from extreme movement and stillness, and Yin is generated from stillness, and then moves again from extreme stillness. One movement and one stillness are the root of each other.” He also said: “Tai Chi is inherently infinite” and “the two qi interact and transform into all things.” Zhou Dunyi revealed to us the rich connotation of “Tai Chi thinking” unique to the East. First of all, “Tai Chi is inherently infinite.” Tai Chi means that there are no opposite sides, no subject and object, no sensibility and rationality, and no opposites; second, yin and yang are both in motion, and yin can change into yang and yang in motion. It can also change into yin, and yin and yang interact and embrace each other; thirdly, yin and yang interact with each other to transform all things. It can be seen that “Tai Chi Huansheng” is a kind of life thinking.

This kind of thinking mode cannot be explained by the Western thinking mode of dividing subject and object or the unity of opposites. It is a unique Eastern thinking mode. “Yi Zhuan·Xici” says: “One yin and one yang are called Tao, and what follows is good, and what is achieved is nature.” The Tao of the mutual generation of yin and yang is the fundamental way of the existence and development of life in the world. The mission and nature of human beings is to develop this way of “life and death” and achieve this way of “mutual life”. This is exactly the meaning of the chapter “The Doctrine of the Mean”: “To achieve harmony, the heaven will be established, and all things will be nurtured.” The thinking of “Tai Chi Metamorphosis” embodies the fundamental life model of Yin and Yang in Eastern philosophy, and embodies Eastern philosophy’s revelation of the natural laws of heaven and earth and the fundamental mysteries of life and social development. In terms of aesthetics and art, the harmony of yin and yang and the transformation of qi are the essence of Eastern art. The traditional art of the East is not a mirror art that directly “imitates” reality like Western classical art, but a “spirit” style that emphasizes “vivid charm” and “life far away” and is filled with “extraordinary charm”. 的艺术。 Whether it is traditional Chinese poetry, painting, Peking opera, etc., or traditional Japanese ukiyo-e, Korean classical singing and dancing, etc., they are all imbued with the “spirit” of oriental art. In short, concepts and connotations such as “yin and yang transform into life”, “dynamic and stillness are rooted in each other”, and “energy comes out far away” are the key to the “neutral education” picture of Eastern aesthetics and art. 5. Thoughts on the survival of “harmony with living things” Traditional Chinese culture has very rich and diverse interpretations of the issue of “harmony”, the most famous of which are the concepts of “harmony with living creatures” and “harmony without difference”.

This is a powerful statement about human survival. “Guoyu·Zheng Yu” records that on the anniversary of the Western Zhou Dynasty, Zheng Huangong asked Shi Bo: “What disadvantages did the Zhou Dynasty have?” Shi Bo replied: “It is most likely to have disadvantages.” This is because, in Shi Bo’s view, the Zhou Dynasty had disadvantages. If the king “removes harmony and takes unity”, it will definitely lead to the decline of the country’s destiny. Shi Bo pointed out: “Husbands and real creatures, if they are the same, they will not continue. If one is equal to another, it is called harmony, so it can grow and the things will return. If the same benefit is the same, all will be discarded.” This means, “Harmony.” ” is the way of “enrichment” for the development of all things in the world, including human society. The key lies in the existence of diversity of things, which is the so-called “equaling others with others.” Only with “harmony” can things “grow abundantly and return to their original state”. If it is just a repetition of similar things, then the way of “enrichment” will be extinguished, and “it will be abandoned if it is exhausted.” Shi Bo pointed out: The law of “harmony” is universal. It is said that “no sound is heard, no thing is written, no taste is fruitful, and no thing is spoken”. Therefore, whether it is politics, cooking, art, self-cultivation, etc., we should follow the principle of “harmonizing living things”. “Therefore, the ancient kings mixed earth with metal, wood, water, and fire to make hundreds of things. Therefore, they mixed the five flavors to adjust the taste.” “The four strong branches are used to protect the body, the six rhythms are combined to listen to the ears, the seven bodies are straightened to control the heart, the eight ropes are leveled to become adults, the nine disciplines are established to cultivate pure virtue, and the ten are combined to train the hundreds of bodies.” This is “talking about using many things and doing things in the same way”. At the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, when Yan Ying, the famous Prime Minister of Qi, was discussing the relationship between monarch and ministers with the Marquis of Qi, he once again criticized the tendency of “removing harmony and gaining unity”. “Zuo Zhuan·The 20th Year of Zhaogong” records that Yan Ying pointed out that “harmony” in politics should be “what the king says is possible, but whether it is possible or not, the minister 74 Gansu Social Sciences 2017 Issue 3 will not be able to achieve it.” “What the king says is “no”, but it is possible, and if the minister offers it, he can get rid of the “no”. Only in this way can “the government be peaceful without doing anything, and the people have no desire to compete.”

Yan Ying took cooking as an example and pointed out: “The harmony is like a soup, water, fire, fermented rice, glutinous rice, salt, plums, to cook fish and meat, burn it with firewood, butcher and mix it, combine it with taste, and save it. To vent their faults.” The “harmony” mentioned by Yan Ying also emphasizes the diversity of things. But he further revealed the relationship between various existing things to “help others to relieve their shortcomings and relieve their shortcomings”, as well as the inner connection that both “complements” and “helps each other”. In this way, Yan Ying raised the issue of the unity of diverse things. Similarly, Yan Ying also pointed out: “Harmony” is a common law that commonly exists in cooking, art, politics, etc. “The ancient kings harmonized the five flavors and harmonized the five sounds to calm their minds and achieve their political goals.” Concepts such as “harmony between living things”, “mutual complementation” and “mutual aid” provide rich ideological resources for the Confucian concept of “neutral education”. “The Analects of Confucius·Zilu” contains: “Confucius said: ‘The gentleman is harmonious but different; the villain is harmonious but not harmonious.'” Confucius regarded “the golden mean” as the ultimate virtue. As an ideal figure in Confucianism, the “gentleman” must of course be “harmony”. “Be different” is the way to do things and be a human being. Youzi, a disciple of Confucius, said: “The use of etiquette, harmony is the most precious. The way of the ancient kings is the most beautiful. If you follow it, you will not be able to do something. Knowing how to be harmonious and making peace without etiquette will not be possible.” ( “The Analects of Confucius·Xueer”) Youzi’s statement is in line with Confucius’s “doctrine of the mean”. The so-called “with etiquette” refers to the meaning of “zhongjie” in the “Zhongyong” chapter. The function of etiquette is to “control the middle”. Only on this basis can there be the beauty of “neutralization” of “the function of etiquette”. Because there are rituals to control it, Confucius pointed out that “excess is still not enough” in self-cultivation (“The Analects of Confucius·Advanced”), and in art he advocated “joy but not obscenity, sadness but not sadness” (“The Analects of Confucius·Xueer”).

“The Book of Rites: The Doctrine of the Mean”, based on concepts such as “harmony between living beings”, “harmony without uniformity” and “the Doctrine of the Mean”, elevates “neutrality” to the way of cultivating human nature and the fundamental way of the existence and development of human society, and This gives people the mission and responsibility of “promoting neutrality” and thus “praising the transformation and education of heaven and earth”. In the Confucian concept of “neutral education”, discussions such as “harmony and substance”, the virtue of “the mean”, “harmony without difference”, “excess is not enough”, and “holding both ends and using the other” are dealt with in the development of modern society. The development and contradictions between good people, between people and society, between countries, and between human society and the natural environment provide enlightening Eastern wisdom. This wisdom centered on harmony and development is more in line with the survival and development of human society than the so-called “clash of civilizations” theory. This Eastern wisdom enables individuals, organizations, countries and the international community to be full of positive vitality in complex relationships. In short, “neutral education” is a valuable philosophical thought left to us by Confucianism. With its unique philosophical thinking of “harmony between nature and man”, the survival concept of “harmony without difference”, the artistic charm of “yin and yang, harmony of qi”, etc., it builds the unique cultural wisdom of East Asian civilization and demonstrates the The important value of Eastern national philosophical thinking has not only guided the continuous development of East Asian civilization, but will also contribute to mankind and influence the world. It is a unique Eastern philosophy, Eastern culture, and Eastern spirit. It is the common cultural wealth of all East Asian countries and an important discourse for long-term exchanges and dialogues between Eastern cultures. We should fully cherish this precious wealth, critically inherit it in the new era, and further develop it.

(Note: This article is the author’s keynote speech at the 2016 “Shandong Forum”) References: [1] Zhang Liwen. Tuixi Book Festival Essentials [M]. Beijing: Renmin University of China Press, 1989:24. [2] Cai Delin. The Light of Eastern Wisdom—A Research Outline of Daisaku Ikeda [M]. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 2003:71. [3] (Qing Dynasty) Cheng Shude. Annotations of the Analects[M]. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, 2013:493. [4] (Song Dynasty) Zhu Xi. Annotations on Chapters and Sentences of the Four Books [M]. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, 1983. About the author: Zeng Fanren (1941—), male, from Fanchang, Anhui, is a tenured professor of Shandong University and a doctoral supervisor at the Literary and Aesthetics Research Center.Editor in charge: Zhao Guojun; Proofreader: Qingquan 84 Literature