• 周二. 4 月 23rd, 2024

山西道教名胜古迹

山西道教名胜古迹

选自《文物世界》2007年第04期,王军

道教是我国本土的古老宗教。 它与儒教、佛教一起在封建社会建立,并称为“三教”。 在我国漫长的封建历史时代,道教的社会声势和信徒数量都不及儒教和佛教。 但它以其独特的宗教文化体系顽强地生存了近两千多年,并逐渐传播到国外,影响深远。 道教文化是我国古代文化遗产的重要组成部分。

历史学界和道教界普遍认为,道教形成于东汉舜帝时期(126-144年)。 江苏省奉贤县人张陵(后名张道陵)在四川鹤鸣山(又名呼鸣山)创立天师道(天师道)。 五斗米道教是道教出现的正式历史开端。 张陵之孙张鲁在巴、蜀、汉中推广五配米道三十余年。 后来投降曹操,被封为万户侯。 天师之道公开传播。 道教创立时,尊老子为崇高之神、祖师,并以老子的《五千言》(《道德经》)为主要经典。 它依赖于这部哲学经典中提出和讨论的概念和类别。 “道”和“德”是道家最基本的原则。 那么,道教是一个什么样的宗教呢? 我国道教被定义为:“崇拜黄老之道,以神仙教义和道教教义为中心,融合传统宗教习俗,教化世人,追求宇宙和谐、国家和平、信仰世界”。人们信奉道教,这是一种积德行善、带来平安、幸福和长寿的宗教”[1]。

道教文化对中国文化的影响_道教文化精髓_道教文化

山西,地处黄河中游黄土高原,是中华民族的发祥地之一、中华文明的摇篮。 在这片神奇而古老的土地上,有许多中国乃至世界著名的名胜古迹,其中大部分都与宗教有关,包括许多道教名山、寺庙、古迹。 本文拟对山西现存的著名道教风景名胜区及其所蕴含的丰富的道教文化内涵作一简要探讨。

1、闻名中外的道教名山

道教以信仰神仙为中心。 殷商时期的鬼神崇拜,战国末期出现的房仙术,汉末的黄老(黄帝、老子)道教。 这三个方面是道教信仰的起源。 黄老道教以长生不老之术为核心,是道教的前身。 相信和宣扬修道可以长生不老,是其最大的特点。 道教历来崇尚自然,崇拜名山大川。 这大概是因为山中变幻莫测的云海和海市蜃楼的奇观,很容易让人产生一种奇妙而神秘的仙境感觉,诱惑着人们对它充满狂热的幻想和着迷,充满希望。 热情地追求它。

自古以来,天下名山高僧众多。 山西山多,深受道教徒青睐。 主峰位于山西省浑源县恒山,海拔2017米,气势雄伟。 道教称第五个小洞为“北岳长山洞”,又称太恒山、圆岳等。通称北岳,与东岳泰山、西岳华山、南岳恒山、中岳嵩山并称五山,在全世界同样享有盛誉。 恒山是海河支流桑干河和滹沱河的分水岭。 历史上,中国历代皇帝都十分重视对恒山的崇拜。 唐宗、宋祖等都曾到衡山考察参拜。 后世皇帝大多遣使到衡山朝圣[2]。 这里不仅是全国著名的旅游胜地,也是历史悠久的重要道教活动场所。

据有关记载,早在两千多年前的西汉初年,恒山地区就有炼丹师,懂得长生不老的方剂,炼制丹药。 他们在《汉书·艺文志》中被称为仙族。 《衡山志》记载,西汉时期,有一位方士,自称殷太子。 常游衡山,不食五谷。 他只吃水果和其他植物。 《广烈仙传》记载,西汉景帝年间,有一个名叫茅英、字叔慎的人,弃家到恒山修道。 他的两个弟弟毛古、毛忠也在衡山修仙。 传说他们都得道成仙,世称“三毛真君”。 恒山上还有一处叫三毛石窟的地方[3]。

道教文化对中国文化的影响_道教文化精髓_道教文化

北魏太武元年(424年),嵩山道士寇谦之在北魏都城平城(今大同)完成天师道改革,创立新天师道(又称新天师道)。如北天道祖)。 北魏宰相崔浩尊崇道教,拜寇谦之为弟子。 他极力宣扬寇谦之的神通,劝说太武帝拓跋焘尊崇道教。 北魏统一华北后,鉴于他们出身于鲜卑族拓跋部,为消除汉族因民族隔阂而产生的反抗,实行同质化政策。汉族人。 相传拓跋部原是黄帝之子昌邑的后裔。 《北史·魏本纪》记载:“魏国的祖先出自黄帝,黄帝的儿子叫昌邑,昌邑的儿子被封为北国,位于大鲜北山,因他“拓跋”是这个“北国托付”部落的姓氏,自然是汉族血统。

道教文化对中国文化的影响_道教文化_道教文化精髓

作为汉族后裔,他当然有权利继承西农正统,建立王朝。 为此,拓跋家族表达了对道教的信仰,并接受了道符,从而表明魏(北魏)接受了天命,继承了道统为帝[4]。 寇谦之发动的战争的成功,使太武帝日益信道而排斥佛教,并封寇谦之为国师。 自五世纪中叶以来,道教首次获得国教地位。 寇谦之的弟子李姣等人利用这些有利条件,在北魏都城各地,特别是恒山地区传教兴建寺院庙宇,大力发展信徒。 一时间,香火极为兴盛。 恒山寺和悬空寺的修建就是在此时开始的[5]。

李、唐两代的统治者想利用老子李旦来提高自己的家庭地位,把道教视为“王朝的家教”,或者说“皇教”,有意扶持。 道教想通过统治者的力量来发展,两者相互利用。 因此,道教受到皇室的崇拜,变得极为兴盛,使得唐代的道教在历史上极为繁荣。 恒山已成为道教圣地,被誉为“第五洞天”。 山上宫殿星罗棋布,大多建在悬崖峭壁上,悬崖峭壁上凿有洞穴。 这真是一个奇迹。 一时间,衡山道观的香火名扬塞北,全国各地盛行道教崇拜。 据记载:唐开元二年(714年),玄宗在衡山修建龙泉寺。 有两种泉水,一甜一苦。 他赐匾并重修恒山寺[6]。

八仙之一张果老曾带领弟子到恒山修道炼丹。 玄宗喜仙,欲得仙术,便派人到恒山迎接。 玄宗见到张果老后,欲将自己的公主嫁给他,并传旨:“玉真公主早年善教,欲臣服夫君。” 张果老哈哈一笑,不肯接受圣旨。 后来他执意要回山,唐玄宗只好释放了他。 授银庆光禄大夫、通玄先生。 这就是恒山通玄谷的由来。 《太平广记》卷三十:“郭常骑白驴,日行数万里,休息时将其重叠,其厚如纸,置于巾盒内。骑时,他将其重叠。”把水倒在它身上,它就变成了一头驴。没错。” 相传恒山十八景中的果老岭是张果老骑毛驴登山的地方,通玄谷是他在家炼丹的地方。 至今仍有一些遗迹[7]。

五台山素有“华北屋脊”、“清凉胜境”之称,是中国佛教四大名山之首,世界五大佛教圣地之一。 然而很少有人知道,这里早期曾被道教占据。 五台山又名紫府山,是道教对五台山的尊称。 《清凉山志》记载:“紫府,五台总名,远望五峰之间,紫气氤氲,为神人居所。” 道教崇尚紫色,用紫色来形容一切。 例如,道士的衣服称为紫衣。 ,修炼的地方称为紫室、紫洞,神明称为紫帝,神明的居所称为紫宫、紫清等。紫府也指神明的居所。 《成语故事学·佛道鬼神》云:“紫府即仙宫”。 五台山最早活跃的宗教是道教,留下了丰富的道教文物,诠释了许多道教神话传说。 唐惠祥的《古清凉传》记述:“仙经云,五台山名紫府,常有紫气,有仙居其间。” 佛教传入五台山后,佛教和道教开始各自发展。 激烈的竞争往往涉及学习和融合。 最终佛教获胜并统治了五台山。 佛教采取了保留和改造五台山道号紫符的方法,赋予了它佛教色彩。 紫府已成为佛教和道教共同认可的五台山的别称之一[8]。

北武当山又名真武山,位于房山县吕梁山脉中段。 主峰海拔1985米。 陡峭的悬崖上,只有千级石阶如天梯直通山顶。 一路上的寺庙风格各异。 灵官寺悬于悬崖之上,鲁班亭矗立在老木洼寺之巅。 到了南天门,“武当山”三个字映入眼帘。 穿过南天门,便是北武当山山顶。 每年农历三月初一至三,这里香火鼎盛,游人云集。 隋唐时期,是华北、西北地区颇具影响力的道教圣地。 相传湖北武当山真武帝巡游此地,选择在此建行宫。 初名真武山,后按“不配玄武”之意改为武当山。 为了不与湖北武当山相混淆,故命名为北武当山。 它以险峻秀丽而著称,被誉为三晋名山[9]。

2. 世界著名的道教宫观

山西是宋元时期全真教龙门派的重要根据地,是道教文化传播的重要地区之一。 南宋时期,中国南北分离,山西所在的北方被金朝统治。 其中主要有全真道教、道教、太乙道教等。到了元明时期,全真教与南方的正一教被列为道教南北对立的两个教派。 全真教创始人王哲(1112~1170),又名王重阳,宋金时期著名道士。 他死后,他的七位最得意弟子继承了他的教义,将全真教传播到大江南北。 它盛极一时,成为后期最大的道教教派之一。 他们分别是全真玉仙派丹阳大师马玉闯、全真南武宗长真大师谭处端、全真随山派长圣大师刘处玄、全真龙门派长春大师丘处机、玉阳大师王处一闯。 全真玉山派,广宁法师郝大同创立全真华山派,清净法师孙不二创立全真清净派。 这七人史称“全真道北七大真宗”。 其中,以丘处机创办的全真龙门派最为盛行,历代不衰[10]。

丘处机(1148~1227),又名通密、长春子。 栖霞(今山东)人。 幼年父母双亡,十九岁入山修道。 后拜全真教领袖王重阳为弟子。 元朝十四年(1219年),元太祖率十八弟子西行,到大雪山(阿富汗兴都库什山)拜见成吉思汗。 丘处机说:“要想统治天下,就不能沉迷于杀人。” 要想治理天下,就应该“敬天爱民”。 因此,成吉思汗尊他为“丘仙”,“赐虎符,附印,封为太师,掌管天下道教”,并免除全真道士的赋税。 丘神仙回到燕京(今北京)后,利用这一特权,指挥弟子在各地进行大规模的建设工程,修建宫殿寺庙,招收弟子,使全真教蓬勃发展,声名显赫。 ,达到全盛时期。 全真龙门派以清心寡欲为道教基础,宣扬“一念无生即是自由,心无一物即是仙佛”的信仰。 金哀宗四年(1227年)丘处机去世,继任者有尹志平、李志昌、宋德芳等“十八大家”。 其十八弟子皆被封为“真人”。 其弟子李志昌所著的《长春真人西游记》详细记述了丘处机西行雪山拜见成吉思汗的经过[11]。 位于山西省最南端芮城县城北2.5公里处龙泉村五龙寺附近的道教名刹永乐宫,就是在上述背景下由龙门派弟子创建的。 相传,这座宫殿是八仙之一吕洞宾的故里。

吕洞宾是唐末著名道士。 他的名字叫易作言,小号春阳子。 河中府永乐(今山西永济)人。 祖父卢伟,官至礼部侍郎。 其父陆让曾任海州刺史。 在会昌,吕洞宾两次科举失利,因此淡泊名利,浪迹江湖。 当他遇到钟离时,他被教导炼丹术。 曾隐居终南山、九峰山等地修道。 北宋宣和元年(1119年),受圣旨封为“妙童真人”,元代被封为“纯阳颜正经华福佑帝”。 道教全真派尊他为北教五祖(王玄甫、钟离权、吕洞宾、刘海蟾、王重阳)之一,尊他为纯阳祖师,俗称吕祖。世界。 他是八仙中影响力最大、民间神话传说最多的。 唐代将故居改建为鲁公祠,晋末又将祠改建为寺庙。 元代重建扩建后,更名为大纯阳万寿宫。 因位于永乐镇,故又称永乐宫。 与天都天长寺(明以后称白云寺)、终南山重阳宫齐名。 成为继元代之后最著名的宫殿。 镇教三大祖屋之一。 1958年,因国家在黄河上修建三门峡水库,位于黄河北岸的永乐宫就处于水库蓄水区。 从保护这一珍贵文化遗产出发,国务院决定从1959年起至1965年止,永乐宫的全部建筑和壁画由原永济县永乐镇迁至芮城县新址,历时七年。 恢复原貌,为令世界瞩目的中国艺术增添光彩。

永乐宫是我国古代的一座艺术宝库。 除宫门外,500米长的中轴线上矗立着四座元代宏伟的宫殿:龙虎殿、三清殿、纯阳殿、重阳殿。 元太宗十二年(1240年),披云真人宋德芳来永乐参拜纯阳寺。 他感叹其荒凉,提议修建纯阳宫,但没有成功[12]。 元太宗三年(1244年),道观毁于野火。 于是尹志平、李志昌等“道教领袖”推荐了丘处机西游十八弟子之一的潘德冲为“河南南北路的推动者”,来到河南。主持修建大纯阳宫[13]。 公元1247年左右动工,历时15年,至中通三年(1262年),三清、纯阳、重阳三大主殿才竣工。 整个建筑工程和壁画的绘制历时约一百年。 据壁画铭文记载,至正十八年(1358年)才竣工,其历时几乎与元朝一样长。 可见,巨大的永乐宫是全真派得势后,为了弘扬祖师的荣耀而建造的。 然而建造过程,包括各殿堂精美壁画的完成,却花费了数百年的时间,可见其难度有多大。

永乐宫的元代道教壁画遍布四座元代建筑,总面积960平方米。 其题材丰富,绘画技巧高超。 它继承了唐宋时期道教人物画的优秀传统,又进行了大胆的变化和创造性的表现。 六百多年前艺术工匠创作的精美杰作,堪称中国艺术史上的精美杰作,也不禁令当今中外画家惊叹不已。 其中以三清殿的太阳神像和纯阳殿的“纯阳帝仙行显”最为精美。

三清殿又名无级殿,面阔七间,进深四间。 是规模最大的建筑。 是永乐宫的正殿,是供奉道教“三清”的圣殿。 殿内中央平台原有的雕像早已被毁。 “三清”分别是玉清元始天尊(又名天宝主)、上清灵宝主(又名灵宝主、太上道君)、太清道德天尊(又名神宝主、太上老君),他们是至高无上的。道教所崇拜的神灵。 三神所住的天界是最高境界,称为玉清、上清、太清。 统称为三清、三清天、三清境(即玉清仙境、上清玉玉仙境、太清大清)。 赤天仙境)。 道教也有“一气化三清”的说法,意思是“三清”都是元始天尊的化身。 与三清像相配的还有豆心扇壁外侧和殿堂四壁的壁画。 所有壁画整体由八位帝神组成,率领290名值班神明前来祭祀,故名“朝元图”。 “朝元”是指祭祀元始天尊的神群。 《朝元图》的画风与北宋著名画家武宗元的著名《朝元仙战图》(又称八十七仙图)极为相似。 整个画面云雾缭绕,庄严肃穆,金碧辉煌,雄伟壮观。 是中国绘画史上的重要作品,也是世界绘画史上不可多得的杰作。

纯阳殿,又名混成殿,俗称吕祖殿,面阔五间,进深三间。 是为祭祀吕洞宾而建。 纯阳殿东、西、北壁绘有《纯阳帝神行显像图》。 自吕洞宾出生以来,他就选取了有关吕洞宾的传说和故事,绘制了52幅系列画,共同构成了一部图传。

殿内扇壁后壁有《中离泉都禄干》壁画(又名二仙谈道图),是纯阳殿壁画中最精彩的部分之一。 岩石上,两个人相对而坐。 钟离权袒露胸膛,穿着芒果鞋,留着长长的胡须,肤色发紫,表情坦率开朗,朴实可亲。 吕洞宾皮肤白皙,留着胡须,双手紧握,凝视着,听着。 虽然他的外表平静而肃穆,但他的内心却似乎在快速的活动。 画家能够用笔墨表达他们不同的思想和情感,并细致地描绘出来。 与此图相对,北门上方有“八仙渡海”图,气势磅礴,给人一种庄严之感。

吕洞宾在八仙中的名气远超其他七仙。 供奉吕洞宾的吕祖庙、纯阳宫遍布全省各地,不少道观还建有吕祖殿或吕祖阁。 纯阳宫,位于太原市五一广场西北角,始建年代不详。 相传披云真人宋德芳曾主持此道观,颇有影响。 院内还留有披云真人宋德芳的石棺。 明万历年间和清乾隆、嘉庆时期先后进行了大规模的修建和扩建,形成了沿中轴线排列的主要建筑:宫门、吕祖殿、方形单间等。亭、阁、堂、庑、窑洞、园林融为一体,布局精巧,曲折曲折,错落有致,清静幽雅。 道教常说“神仙喜居塔”,木结构建筑体系的楼阁成为道教建筑的特色之一。 最独特、最令人兴奋的是第三进院的双层楼阁建筑。 底层八面按道教干、坤、震、巽、坎、离、艮、兑八卦砌砖洞。 俗称“九洞十八洞”。 “两层木结构,四层五阁,回廊、飞桥相连,形成空间交通系统,比喻这座宫殿犹如天上的九颗星,仙界的天宫。” 排队”。 可见,庭院建筑群不同于一般的传统布局,而是按照道家“天宫琼宇”的艺术理念设计的。 形式独特独特,风格独特精美,道教建筑艺术具有极其鲜明的特色。 是中国建筑史上罕见的实物范例。

3、丰富多彩的道教古迹

道教是多神教,信奉多神,基本上分为两大体系:一是道教尊神。 除了最高神“三清神”之外,还有“四皇神”。 皇帝就是皇帝。 四皇,是辅佐三清的四位天帝。 他们是:昊天金阙至尊玉皇大帝(掌管天道之神); 中天紫微北极太上皇(辅佐玉皇大帝掌管天地经纬、星辰日月、掌管星辰四时天气的神) ); 沟陈上宫,南极大帝(辅佐玉皇大帝掌管南北两极,天地人三才,掌管天下战争和革命的神); )。 其次,有日月星辰诸神(明神是太阳,夜明神是月亮,北斗星之母是斗母,五星之主,太白金星) 、二十八星座之神等)、四方神(又称四象、四灵之神,即青龙、白虎、朱雀、玄武)等。 《清净》和《四皇》、《玉皇大帝》都是唐宋时期道家编撰的,后来逐渐定型。

另一种制度是民间信仰的道教世俗神灵,包括三官(三元)皇帝,即天官、地官、水官。 早期道教中,除老君为最高神外,最早崇拜的神祇就是三官神。 道教认为天官赐福,地官赦罪,水官消灾。 因为它与人们的利益密切相关,所以为人们所熟知。 其次有雷神、门神、财神、灶神、城隍、药王、山神、河神、社稷神等。后世还增加了对开明仙王的崇拜,如三毛真君、八仙王等。仙人、北五祖、北齐真、关帝等。天后、娲皇、文昌、麻姑、妈祖等。历史上,道教曾多次尝试统一宗教神灵系列,但始终没有形成规范的排列。 在某些地区、某些情况下,人们所信奉的世俗神祇甚至比道教正统的神祗如三清、玉皇大帝还要重要。

玉皇大帝是民间(汉族)崇拜的最高神,因此在道教宫观中无所不在。 山西省比较有名的祭祀玉皇大帝的地方有晋城玉皇庙、长治玉皇庙、汾阳太傅庙等。 玉皇庙,位于山西省晋城市东13公里处的山西省晋城镇府城村后山坡上,以其300尊道教神像而闻名中外,艺术地代表了我国道教仙人的形象。系统。 是全国重点文物保护单位。 始建于北宋神宗熙宁九年(1076年)。 金、元、明、清历代曾多次修葺。 寺院共有三进院落,殿堂、亭阁、厢房110余间。 其中以十二元辰真君和二十八宿星君的雕像艺术成就最高。 They are the only Yuan Dynasty sculpture treasures of extremely high level that remain in our country. These statues and inscriptions from past dynasties are valuable materials for studying the history of Taoism and Taoist sculpture art.

The Huoquan Water Temple, located at the foot of Huo Mountain 17 kilometers north of Hongdong County, Shanxi, is the legendary shrine to the Huoquan Water God. It was first built in the Tang Dynasty. In the seventh year of Dade in the Yuan Dynasty (1303), there was a big earthquake in Hongdong area, which destroyed the water temple. It was rebuilt in the sixth year of Yanyou (1319) and is still well preserved. According to “Guangsheng Temple Chronicles”: Around 256 to 251 BC, King Qin Zhao appointed Li Bing as the governor of Shu County. Li Bing built many water conservancy projects in the Minjiang River Basin, among which Dujiangyan is the most famous, which has achieved remarkable results in the western Sichuan plain for more than two thousand years. During the Zhenyuan period of Emperor Dezong of the Tang Dynasty, he sent Prime Minister Li Bi to confer Li Bing as the God of King Mingying in order to obtain Huoquan. From then on, Li Bing, a conservancy expert during the Warring States Period, became the water god of Huoquan [14].

The main building in the Water Temple is Dalang Hall, also known as the Hall of King Mingying. The hall is covered with double eaves and surrounded by cloisters below, making it majestic. There is a statue of Dalang Li Bing, the god of water in Huoquan, in the hall. There are also standing statues of four courtiers. The Yuan Dynasty murals in the hall were created in the first year of Yuan Taiding (1324). The painting techniques are very skillful, the figures are vivid and flowing, the lines are smooth and powerful, and the compositions are clever. They are still intact to this day. Although its scale is not as grand as the Yongle Palace murals, its artistic value is comparable. It is precious information for studying the social history of water conservancy, coal, refrigeration, and drama in the Yuan Dynasty [15]. The temple has a long history and a large scale and occupies an important position in the history of Taoism in my country.

When it comes to Guan Sheng Dijun, Dang Mo Zhenjun or Demon Subduing Emperor, not many people may know about them. When it comes to Guan Gong, Guan Yu or Guan Yunchang, they are well-known to every household, including women and children. However, the latter is a human being and the former is a god. As we all know, the Confucian Temple is the Temple of Confucius, and the Wu Temple is the temple dedicated to Guan Gong, often called Guandi Temple, Guansheng Temple, Guanwang Temple, and Guanshengdijun Temple. Since the people like to call Emperor Guan “Master Guan”, Guan Temple is also called “Lao Ye Temple”.

Guan Yu, courtesy name Yunchang, was born in Jieliang, Hedong (now Jiezhou, Yuncheng, Shanxi). He was a general of the Shu Han Dynasty during the Three Kingdoms period. Chen Shou’s “Three Kingdoms” records Guan Yu’s life: At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Guan Yu fled to Zhuo County, raised troops from Liu Bei, and became brothers with Zhang Fei and three others. It has been passed down as a good story in later generations: “Three Brothers in Taoyuan”. In the fifth year of Jian’an (200 years), Liu Bei was defeated by Cao Cao. After Guan Yu was captured, he was treated with great courtesy and was named Han Shoutinghou. Later, he still defected to Liu Bei and was sent to guard Jingzhou. Liu Bei was the king of Hanzhong, worshiped Guan Yu as his former general, and led his troops to attack Cao’s army. Guan Yu flooded seven armies, captured him, killed Pang De, and dominated China. Soon after Sun Quan attacked Jingzhou, he was defeated and captured in Maicheng (now Dangyangdong, Hubei Province). After the Song Dynasty, his deeds were exaggerated and deified by feudal rulers, who respected him as “Guan Gong” and “Guan Di”. The novel “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms” written by Luo Guanzhong, a native of Taiyuan in the late Yuan Dynasty, has many chapters describing Guan Yu as “warming wine and killing Hua Xiong”, “passing five passes and killing six generals”, “going to the meeting alone”, etc., depicting Guan Yu as an extremely perfect hero. The embodiment of bravery and loyalty made Guan Yu famous and became “the most loyal and righteous man in the Han Dynasty, the first hero through the ages” and “the first general in ancient and modern times”. Due to the admiration of the emperors, Guan Yu’s status was extremely prominent, with the title of “King of Martial Arts” and “Sage of Martial Arts”. He stood side by side with Confucius, the “King of Literature” and “Sage of Literature”. He became the only person respected by Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. idol.

Jiezhou Guandi Temple is located in Jiezhou Town, the hometown of Guan Yu, 20 kilometers west of Yuncheng City, Shanxi. It is the largest, most spectacular and best-preserved Guandi Temple in China. It was first built in the ninth year of Kaihuang’s reign (589) in the Sui Dynasty, and was expanded in the seventh year of Xiangfu’s Dazhong in the Song Dynasty (1014). Afterwards, it was added or rebuilt many times in the dynasties, restoring and maintaining the shape of the Sui Dynasty. The front and rear courtyards have their own pattern and are connected by more than 100 corridors. The layout is rigorous, the arrangement is symmetrical, the priorities are clear, and the style is extraordinary. It is a palace-style temple complex with traditional Chinese style.

The famous Main Hall of Tianning Temple in Guashan, Jiaocheng, Shanxi, has the Guan Emperor Temple on one side and the Guanyin Hall on the other side, which means that Guan Emperor and Guanyin can sit on equal footing. In many Buddhist temples, Guan Yu is listed as Jialan (temple protector god). Taoism regards Guan Yu as the “true king of demons” and “the great emperor of demons”. He has many magical powers such as commanding orders, blessing imperial examinations, curing diseases and eliminating disasters, exorcising evil spirits and avoiding evil, and even attracting wealth and treasures, and protecting merchants. In order to maintain the feudal order, the rulers of the past dynasties were willing to use Guan Yu, who embodies “loyalty, filial piety, justice”, to “educate” their subjects. This is why there are martial arts temples all over the world.

In addition, Dongyue Temple in Pu County, Qingxu Temple in Pingyao, Yuxu Palace in Liulin, Houtu Temple in Jiexiu, Jiyi Temple in Xinjiang, etc. are all famous Taoist architectural remains.

From the Song and Yuan Dynasties to the Ming Dynasty, the ruling class advocated the unification of the three religions in order to reconcile religious conflicts. The Quanzhen religion of Taoism advocates the equality of the three religions and the unity of the three religions, which exactly caters to the needs of the ruling class. Therefore, the integration of the three religions became the development trend of religious culture in my country during the Ming and Qing Dynasties.

The Hanging Temple, located on the cliff east of Cuiping Peak at the entrance to Beiyue Hengshan Mountain, is the first wonder of Beiyue Hengshan Mountain. The temple was first built in the Northern Wei Dynasty and repaired in the Tang, Jin, Ming and Qing Dynasties. Most of the existing buildings are from the Qing Dynasty. The temple is based on a mountain, with caves dug on the steep cliffs and cantilevered beams inserted. The temples and pavilions are backed by a green screen and face a deep ravine. They are built suspended halfway up the mountain, hence the name. The entire temple is made of wood and has more than 20 large and small halls. There are not only the Buddhist Guanyin Hall, the Ksitigarbha Hall, and the Five Buddhas Hall, but also the Taoist Sanguan Hall and Chunyang Hall. Among them, the famous Three Religions Hall has statues of Sakyamuni, Laozi, and Confucius, Confucianism, Buddhism, and The originators of the three Taoist religions lived together in the same room, which fully embodies the religious thought of “the three religions are unified”.

4. Rare Taoist Grottoes

In order to adapt to social needs and self-improvement, Buddhism and Taoism constantly integrate and coordinate with each other, learning from each other’s strengths and weaknesses. Buddhism incorporates Taoism’s health and longevity techniques. Taoism incorporates Buddhist theories of cause and effect, reincarnation, and the nature of mind. Taoism is gradually improved by continuously absorbing the theories and rituals of Buddhism and Confucianism.

The excavation of cave temples is a religious art introduced to my country by Buddhism through India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. After the Song Dynasty, with the development of clay sculptures and colorful sculptures, the excavation of cave temples gradually declined. The Longshan Grottoes, located 20 kilometers southwest of Taiyuan City, are one of the rare grottoes with Taoist themes in my country. The main part of the grotto was built by Song Defang, a Taoist priest of the Quanzhen Religion in the Yuan Dynasty.

Defang of the Song Dynasty, whose courtesy name was Guangdao and whose nickname was Piyunzi, was from Yecheng, Laizhou (now Yexian County, Shandong Province). Born in the 23rd year of Dading of the Jin Dynasty (1183), at the age of twelve, he studied under Liu Changsheng, the real person of Chuxuan, one of the Seven Immortals. He died in the third year of Taihe (1203) of Changsheng. He also studied under Qiu Chuji, the real person of Changchun. Piyunzi was diligent in his studies and dabbled in all Confucian and Taoist classics. In the fourteenth year of Emperor Taizu of the Yuan Dynasty (1219), in response to an imperial edict, he followed Dao Shouqiu Chuji to the Western Regions to meet Genghis Khan. Later, he moved between Dadu (today’s Beijing), Hedong (Shanxi Jinnan area), and Zhongnan Mountain (Shaanxi). According to the “Inner Biography of Zuting Xianzhen of Zhongnan Mountain”, “Song Defang traveled to the Western Mountains of Taiyuan in the sixth year of Emperor Taizong of the Yuan Dynasty (1234) and found the former site of Haotian Temple. There were two stone caves, both with Taoist statues.” So he raised funds and hired craftsmen to rebuild Haotian Temple, and opened six more caves next to these two caves, forming a scale of eight caves. So far, there is no trace of Haotian Temple, but the grotto still exists. These eight caves have three floors, distributed from top to bottom and from west to east. The “Taiyuan County Chronicle” published by Jiajing of the Ming Dynasty records: “On the top of Longshan Mountain, ten miles west of the county, on the east cliff of Haotian Temple, eight niches were carved into the stone chamber. They were carved by a Taoist named Song Dynasty Piyunzi. One is called the Xuhuang niche, Eleven stone statues are carved inside; the second is called Sanqing niche, and three Sanqing statues are carved inside; the third is “Lying Ru niche”, and there is a lying statue carved inside, which is said to be the place where Phi Yunzi lay down; the fourth is called Xuanzhen niche, and inside There are three carved stone statues; the fifth is called the Three-day Great Master’s niche, with three stone statues carved inside; the sixth is called the Seven True Niches, with seven stone statues carved inside. The seventh and eighth niches are both named Biandao niches, and the Jade Emperor’s Hall has five rooms, Zhengde In the early years, Neiguan Changying rebuilt it” [17]. The number of statues in each niche varies, with a total of more than 60 statues.

道教文化精髓_道教文化_道教文化对中国文化的影响

The Longshan Taoist Grottoes focus on depicting the images of Taoist ancestors and Taoist gods.These statues include sitting, lying, moving, and still. The expressions of the stone sculptures in individual grottoes are subtle, intriguing, and have attractive artistic expressions.

The art is charming, the statues are approachable, amiable and respectable, and have a strong Han nationality style. These stone carvings are simple and solemn in style, with concise techniques and simple and quiet carvings on clothing and belts. The three-story caves are stacked on top of each other and the top of the cave is heavily decorated with dragons, phoenixes, cloud patterns and lotus patterns, which is completely different from the sculpture art style of Buddhist caves. Many Taoist inscriptions and carved writings from the Yuan Dynasty are still preserved on both sides and the front wall of the grotto, providing important information for the study of Taoist grotto art and the history of Taoist development. Although the scale and grandeur of the Longshan Grottoes cannot be compared with the Buddhist Datong Yungang Grottoes, with its own simple, solemn and unpretentious Taoist art style, it will be recorded in the art history of the Chinese nation and occupy an important place in the history of Chinese grotto art. Location, it was promulgated as a national key cultural relics protection unit in 1996.

5. 结论

To sum up, Shanxi has a long history of Taoist activities and spread, rich and colorful scenic spots and cultural relics, and unique achievements in the fields of ancient architecture, paintings, sculptures, stone carvings, etc., which provides us with a basis for studying Taoist culture and art and its development history. Lots of physical examples and valuable information. It has irrigated ancient Chinese civilization and is an inexhaustible and precious cultural heritage.